Appendix 4

a - as in but

ā - as in far but held twice as long as a

i - as in pin

ī - as in pique but held twice as long as i

u - as in push

ū - as in rule but held twice as long as u

ṛ - as in rim

e - as in they

ai - as in aisle

o - as in go

au - as in how


k - as in kite

kh - as in Eckhart

g - as in give

gh - as in dig-hard

ṅ - as in sing

p - as in pine

ph - as in up-hill (not f)

b - as in bird

bh - as in rub-hard

m - as in mother

t - as in tub

ţh - as in light-heart

ḍ - as in dove

ḍh - as in red-hot

ṇ - as in sing

a - c - as in chair

ā -ch - as in staunch-heart

i - j - as in joy

ī - jh - as in hedgehog

u - ῆ - as in canyon

t - as in tub

th - as in light-heart

d - as in dove

dh - as in red-hot

n - as in nut

y - as in yes

r - as in run

l - as in light

v - as in vine, except when preceded in the same syllable by a consonant, then like in swan

ś - as in the German word sprechen

ş - as in shine

s - as in sun

h - as in home

ṁ - a resonant nasal sound like in the French word bon

ḥ - as final h-sound: aḥ as pronounced like aha; iḥ like ihi